The word Neurology comes from the Greek words νεῦρον, (neuron) meaning nerve; and λογία (logia) meaning study of.
A neurologist specialises in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, disorders and impaired function of the central nervous system, the peripheral nervous system, and the autonomic and somatic nervous system.
|Central Nervous System||Consists of the brain and spinal cord. This is the part of the nervous system that integrates information received from, and coordinates the activity of, all parts of the body.|
|Consists of nerves and ganglia outside of the brain and spinal cord. Connects the limbs and organs to the central nervous system, it is divided into the autonomic and somatic nervous systems.|
|Acts as a control system acting largely outside the level of consciousness. Controls things like breathing, salivation, sexual function, and digestion.|
|Associated with voluntary control of body movements via skeletal muscle, and also with sensory reception such as touch, hearing and sight.|
Neurologists perform neurological examinations of the nerves of the head and neck and body; muscle strength and movement; balance, ambulation, and reflexes; and sensation, memory, speech, language, and other cognitive abilities.
There are a vast number of neurological disorders that a neurologist will be able to diagnose and treat. These range from seizure disorders such as epilepsy, neuropathies brought on by other conditions such as a stroke, aneurysm, or diabetes, or even conditions of which the cause is of some debate such as Guillain-Barré Syndrome which can cause symptoms ranging from mild weakness of parts of the body to total paralysis. They can also see patients regarding trauma to the brain or spinal cord which can result in a range of neurological pathologies.