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Spinal Conditions

27 February 2023

There are many different spinal conditions. Spondylosis is a common degenerative condition of the spine that is caused by age related changes in the intervertebral disks. It can cause pressure on the nerve roots with subsequent sensory and, or motor disturbances, causing pain and numbness.




Annular TearAn annular tear describes a hole or rip in the outer vertebral disc wall, called the annulus fibrosus. This wall is made up of many inter woven layers of cells and is very strong and durable. However, due to disc injury or spinal degeneration, the outer wall can become compromised, creating a bulging disc, or torn, creating a ruptured disc.
DesiccationDesiccation means, in broad terms, the removal of water. In relation to the spine, disc desiccation can occur with age, meaning the inter vertebral discs become less spongy, absorb less shock,  therefore causing increased friction, giving rise to back pain.
KyphosisKyphosis is an outward curvature of the upper back. It can be either the result of degenerative diseases such as arthritis, developmental problems with the most  common example being Scheuermann’s disease, osteoporosis with compression    fractures of the vertebrae, and/or trauma.
SciaticaSciatica is a symptom of a problem with the sciatic nerve, a large nerve that runs from the lower back down the back of each leg. Sciatica causes pain, weakness, numbness or tingling. It can start in the lower back and extend down the leg to the calf, foot, or even the toes. Sciatica may be due to a ruptured intervertebral disc, narrowing of the spinal canal that puts pressure on the nerve called spinal stenosis, or an injury such as a pelvic fracture. In many cases no cause can be found.
Scheuermann’s diseaseScheuermann’s disease is a relatively common condition arising from abnormal development of the spine during puberty. It is also known as Sherman’s Disease, Scheuermann’s kyphosis (since it results in kyphosis), Calvé disease and Juvenile Osteochondrosis of the Spine. It is named after Holger Werfel Scheuermann.
ScoliosisScoliosis is when a person’s spine is curved from side to side. On an x-ray, viewed from the rear, the spine of an individual with scoliosis may look more like an “S” or a “C” rather than a straight line.
SpondylosisSpondylosis is a common degenerative condition of the cervical spine. It is most likely caused by age related changes in the intervertebral disks. It may cause pressure on nerve roots with subsequent sensory and, or motor disturbances, causing pain or numbness.
SpondylolisthesisWhen spondylosis occurs it can give rise to spondylolisthesis, the partial forward dislocation of one vertebra over the one below it, most commonly the fifth lumbar vertebra over the first sacral vertebra. Severity of spondylolisthesis is classified by percentage of slip.
StenosisSpinal stenosis causes narrowing in the spine. The narrowing can occur at the centre of the spine, in the canals branching off the spine and, or between the vertebrae. The narrowing puts pressure on the nerves and spinal cord and can cause pain.

Spinal Conditions Medical Article