Unravelling the Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Enigma

Complex regional pain syndrome type 1 remains a condition crying out for an organic etiology. The current reviews remain more theoretical than concrete. Because of this, we have no gold standard investigation for diagnosis. Therefore, it is impossible to accurately calculate sensitivity and specificity, as index cases are still “best guesses”. This is problematic when […]

Surgical Management of Low Back Pain

Spinal fusion surgery for lumbar non-specific low back pain is controversial, particularly because the origin of the pain is undetermined and imaging of the spine is unhelpful. The procedure dates back to 1889 but it is in the past 20 years that there has been a great escalation internationally in its use, with an increase […]

Lumbar Spine Surgery

Lumbar spine surgery (fusion, disc replacement or decompression) is common, yet indications are unclear and outcomes, particularity in a workers compensation setting, are not consistently favourable. This study is aimed to determine the outcomes of spine surgery in an Australian workers’ compensation cohort. you can read this article in full below: Lumbar Spine Surgery

Psychiatric Disorders

When considering an Independent Medical Examination, psychiatric problems may be considered as a stand alone issue for a claimant.  Increasingly psychiatric problems are also being seen as an issue to consider alongside an injury or condition which has been, for whatever reason, particularly traumatic for the claimant. Common examples of psychiatric illness are Anxiety Disorders, […]


Pneumonia is a form of acute respiratory infection that affects the lungs. The lungs are made up of small sacs called alveoli, which fill with air when a healthy person breathes. When an individual has pneumonia, the alveoli are filled with pus and fluid, which makes breathing painful and limits oxygen intake. Pneumonia is the […]

The Respiratory System

We need oxygen to keep our bodies functioning on a cellular level, and the respiratory system is the part of the body that enables this to happen. The respiratory system is a group of organs and tissues that enable us to breathe. The main parts of this system are the lungs, the airways, and the […]

Common Orthopaedic Conditions

Orthopaedic is a word derived from the Greek “Ortho” and “Pais” or “straight child”. This is because it was originally used as a word to describe children with spine and limb deformities. Nowadays, Orthopaedics is more commonly used to describe the study and medical treatment of the musculoskeletal system, namely the bones and muscles.  With […]

3D Printing in Medicine

3D printing is enhancing and improving the medical industry with new developments every year. The versatility of 3D printing has resulted in progression in many areas of medicine from ophthalmology to surgery and cardiology. Bioprinting is an extension of traditional 3D printing. Bioprinting can produce living tissue, bone, blood vessels and, potentially whole organs, using […]

Medical Myths

Every day advances are made in modern medicine to enable people to live longer, healthier lives. The internet has made medical information more easily accessible than ever before and people are becoming more aware of the importance of looking after their health. However, a little knowledge can be a dangerous thing. Surprisingly, there are many […]

Complex Regional Pain Syndrome(CRPS)

Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) is an uncommon chronic pain condition that can affect the arms, legs, hands or feet of a patient, following an injury. Rarely, Complex Regional Pain Syndrome affects other parts of the body. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome accounts for approximately 2% to 5% of adult pain clinic patients and up to […]